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                    彎頭的工藝

                    2020-05-21 11:16:21 cjgdadmin 1358

                    無縫彎頭:彎頭用在彎管上的管件,在管道系統中用到的管件中,所占比例較大,約占80%。通常對不一樣的材料或者壁厚的彎頭采取不同的工藝。制造廠商常用的無縫彎頭的工藝是熱推、沖壓、擠壓等。熱推彎頭的成形過程是利用專用彎頭推桿機、芯模和加熱裝置,使模具上的坯料在推壓機的推動下向前移動的加熱、膨脹和彎曲的運動過程。熱推彎頭的變形特征是根據金屬材料塑性變形前后的恒定體積規律確定管坯直徑,管坯直徑小于彎管直徑。用芯??刂其撆鞯淖冃芜^程,使內弧處的受壓金屬流動補償到直徑膨脹變薄的其它部位,從而得到壁厚均勻的彎頭。熱推彎頭成形工藝美觀、壁厚均勻、操作連續,適合大批量的生產,已成為碳鋼和合金鋼彎頭的主要成形的方法,也適合用于一些些不銹鋼彎頭的形成。

                    沖壓成形彎頭是無縫彎頭大批量生產時采用的成型工藝,在一般規格彎頭的生產中已被熱推法或其他的成形工藝所取代,但在某些規格彎頭中,其產量較小,壁厚過厚或過薄。產品在有特殊要求時仍在使用。彎頭沖壓成形采用與彎頭外徑相等的管坯,用壓力機直接在模具中壓制成形。沖壓前,將管坯置于下模上,內芯和端模加載到管坯中,上模向下移動并開始壓下,彎頭通過外模的約束和內模的支撐形成。與熱推成形工藝相比,沖壓成形的外觀質量不如熱壓成形工藝,沖壓彎頭的外弧在成形過程中處于拉伸狀態,另一部分無多余金屬進行補償,外弧壁厚約為10%,但由于適用于單件生產和低成本,沖壓彎頭技術主要用于小批量厚壁彎頭的制造。沖壓彎頭分為冷沖壓和熱沖壓,冷沖壓或熱沖壓通常是根據材料性能和設備容量選擇的。


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